America Wasn’t the Only Foreign Power in the Vietnam War

The War in Vietnam might have been an 'American War' per se, but the U.S. was joined by six other allies in its struggle to defeat the communists in South East Asia.

The conflict in Vietnam might have been an ‘American War’ per se, but the U.S. was joined by six other allies in its struggle to defeat the communists in South East Asia.

“While the conflict is largely remembered as a contest between North and South Vietnam with the United States intervening on behalf of the latter, both factions enjoyed considerable help from a host of other world powers both large and small.”

THE WAR IN VIETNAM was one of the 20th Century’s most intractable conflicts. Also known as the Second Indochina War or simply the American War to the Vietnamese, the epic struggle claimed the lives of more than 2 million people, including some 60,000 U.S. personnel and more than a million civilians. The war also consumed hundreds of billions of dollars, scarred the landscape of much of South East Asia and created toxic divisions within the international community.

While the conflict is largely remembered as a contest between North and South Vietnam with the United States intervening on behalf of the latter, both factions enjoyed considerable help from a host of other world powers both large and small. In fact, more than 10 other nations took an active role in the decade-long fight, losing more than 15,000 lives in the process. While some countries’ contributions are widely known, others might come as a surprise. Let’s examine some of the Vietnam War’s other participants.

Between 1964 and 1973, more than 2.7 million American troops served in Vietnam. Yet despite this hefty commitment, Washington was eager to portray the war as a multinational effort aimed at countering communist aggression. To that end, the White House invited (and pressured) a number its allies in the region to lend a hand in South Vietnam. More than 400,000 troops from six other countries answered the call. Here they are:

Flag_of_South_Korea.svgSouth Korea – Many might peg Australia as the next largest foreign contributor to the war after the United States. But South Korea was by far the most committed foreign ally of the American-led war effort in South East Asia. Between 1965 and early 1973, more than 320,000 South Korean troops served in the war alongside U.S. and ARVN forces, although ROK troop levels never reached more than 50,000 at any given time. And in addition to financially backing the government in Saigon, the U.S. also helped bankroll Seoul’s commitment to conflict to the tune of a quarter-billion dollars. Once deployed, the Korean contingent engaged in its own brutal counterinsurgency campaign throughout South Vietnam. In fact, ROK forces were responsible for a number of atrocities against Vietnamese civilians while prosecuting the conflict. In recent years, South Korea has sought to atone for this grizzly war record. All told, more than 5,000 of the country’s soldiers were killed in nine years of fighting; 10,000 were wounded.

Flag_of_Australia_(converted).svgAustralia – In total, more than 61,000 Australian soldiers also served in the war between 1962 and 1972, although that commitment never exceeded 8,000 troops at one time. In addition to sending infantry, airborne, special forces, medical and armoured units, Australia’s task force also included squadrons of helicopters, transport planes and even Canberra bombers. The Royal Australian Navy contributed a destroyer to the effort as well. More than 500 Australian personnel were killed during 10 years of operations — 3,000 were wounded.

Flag_of_the_Philippines.svgPhilippines – The next largest partner in the U.S.-led war was the Philippines. Beginning in 1966, Manila deployed upwards of 10,000 troops to help support the Saigon government, but kept its contribution limited to medical and logistical operations. Filipino casualties were minimal, yet the decision by the administration of Ferdinand Marcos to deploy troops to Indochina was still controversial domestically.

Flag_of_New_Zealand.svgNew Zealand — Between 1964 and 1972, more than 3,800 New Zealanders served as part of the Allied war effort. In addition to providing artillery batteries, combat engineers and medical personnel, Wellington sent elements of the country’s elite Special Air Service. Pilots also served as part of the larger Australian contingent. In all, 37 troops were killed during the eight-year mission and 187 were wounded. The war proved highly unpopular at home and eventually led to the downfall of the National Party government of Jack Marshall.

Flag_of_Thailand.svgThailand – In 1965 Bangkok committed a small army contingent to South Vietnam, known as the Queen’s Cobra Battalion. It also pledged its national police force’s air assets to monitor several segments of the Ho Chi Minh trail that passed through neighbouring Laos.


Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China.svgTaiwan – One of the earliest foreign contributors to the Saigon government was the the ardently anti-communist Republic of China. In fact, Taiwan provided transport aircraft and secretly offered several hundred of its special forces soldiers to the cause beginning in 1961. Over the next 11 years, three aircraft were lost to enemy ground fire and a number of Taiwanese commandos were captured while on missions in North Vietnam. In all, 25 Taiwanese died in action in Vietnam.

Flag_of_Canada.svgCanada – Although not officially a military contributor to the American war effort, Canadian industry supplied the U.S. with more than $2.5 billion worth of war materiel during the 1960s and early 1970s. Factories north of the 49th Parallel manufactured everything from uniforms to Agent Orange. While mainstream public opinion in Canada was largely against the U.S.-led war in Vietnam, more than 30,000 citizens volunteered to fight in the conflict. At least 100 Canadians died in American uniform during the war and one even won the Medal Of Honor in 1970 for heroism under fire. Following the 1972 Paris Peace Accord, 240 Canadian soldiers were deployed to Vietnam with a multinational UN peacekeeping force to monitor the agreement. Other contributors to that contingent included Hungary, Poland of the Warsaw Pact as well as Indonesia, and Iran.

As America’s role in the war widened, the communist world was keen to see Hanoi prevail. While support to North Vietnam largely came in the form of weapons and material, a number of countries sent advisors and even a handful of combatants. Here’s a run down:

Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union.svgSoviet Union – Moscow proved to be North Vietnam’s chief ally throughout the conflict, supplying both weapons and military advisors. In addition to maintaining a troop commitment that topped 3,000 men at its peak, the Soviet’s lavished Hanoi with more than 2,000 tanks, 7,000 artillery pieces, 5,000 anti-aircraft guns and nearly 200 surface to air missile batteries. Aid from Russia eventually reached $2 million a day. In at least one incident, Soviet advisors engaged American forces in combat. During an air raid on the North in 1965, Soviet anti-aircraft gunners fired on and destroyed American F-4 jets near Hanoi at Thanh Hoa.

Flag_of_the_People's_Republic_of_China.svgChina – Beginning in 1965, the People’s Republic of China provided both military engineers and anti-aircraft batteries to the North Vietnamese war effort. This followed Beijing’s policy of supplying millions of dollars in rice and more than 90,000 assault rifles to the communist regime. By 1968, China began to withdraw its support following a widening rift with Hanoi’s chief ally, the Soviet Union. Beijing gradually shifted its support to the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia. Following the victory over the south in 1975, the unified Vietnam waged a four year war against Cambodia. China invaded Vietnam in 1979 by way of retaliation.

125px-Flag_of_North_Korea.svgNorth KoreaPyongyang also contributed to the communist north. In 1966, the reclusive regime dispatched two squadrons of MiG-17s and a squadron of MiG-21s — 30 planes in all. More than 200 of the country’s aviators eventually rotated in and out of country throughout the war during which time many flew combat missions. Two full regiments of air defence troops were also dispatched. North Korean dictator Kim Il Sung reportedly urged his men to protect the skies above Vietnam as if they were “their own.”

Flag_of_Cuba.svgCuba – Cuba has never formally confirmed its participation in the Vietnam War, although several thousand military engineers reportedly aided the communist war effort. In addition, military advisors from Havana are believed to have taken part in the interrogation of at least 19 captured U.S. fliers. In fact, their supposedly brutal methods have since been dubbed “the Cuban Program”. Castro himself visited Quang Tri shortly after it fell to the communists in 1972.

26 comments for “America Wasn’t the Only Foreign Power in the Vietnam War

  1. 2 October, 2013 at 1:24 pm

    I had no idea 30,000 Canadians crossed the border to fight in the US forces. All we ever heard about were those Americans that crossed into Canada to escape the draft.

    • 2 October, 2013 at 4:04 pm

      There has been talk in recent years of actually including Canada’s Vietnam vets as part of our nation’s Remembrance Day ceremonies.

      • 3 October, 2013 at 10:55 am

        I think that would be good and right.

        • 3 October, 2013 at 2:43 pm

          Despite the interest among some up here in such a move, I could see many Canadians still NOT being receptive to the idea. The war was not particularly popular among Canadians. In fact prime minister Pearson called on LBJ to suspend the bombing. The subsequent PM, Trudeau was even more against the war. Canada was quite welcoming to American conscription evaders too. The role Canadian industry played in supplying the US war effort was controversial in Canada. Even today, I suspect many Canadians would question (perhaps even oppose) counting our Vietnam War dead in with WW1, WW2, Korea and Afghanistan dead.

          • 3 October, 2013 at 4:59 pm

            I thought that as well. My other thought was to do it for the people who fought it, not because one agreed with the politics.I was in the Army at the end of the period and I can tell you no one wanted to be the last guy killed. Having said that I have nothing but admiration for those who went including Canadians who clearly didn’t have to.Soldiers I like, politicians, not so much 😉

          • 3 October, 2013 at 5:56 pm

            Well put, my friend!

      • 29 September, 2016 at 2:29 pm

        Sadly, the American did not include us, Khmer Republic (Cambodia)
        as one of the countries who also was there side by side with the American soldiers during Vietnam conflicts. 41 years after U.S left us to die in the hand of the Khmer Rouge, the American Congress still do not acknowledge our contributions to that war.

        • 1 October, 2016 at 3:16 pm

          An unfortunate oversight on the part of the publishers. Cambodia’s contribution should have been noted in the story. We are sorry for the omission and thank you for bringing it to light. And also, we’re not Americans actually; we’re from Canada.

  2. 2 October, 2013 at 6:59 pm

    No surprise seeing Japan was absent in the roll call… BTW, it took me FIVE trips to DC for me to overcome my emotions and actually view the Wall. I barely made it through. It was tough.

    • 2 October, 2013 at 7:49 pm

      I saw the wall once in 1989.

      • 2 October, 2013 at 8:51 pm

        Three high school friends died there…

      • 2 October, 2013 at 8:53 pm

        What did you feel? I believe you are Canadian?

      • 2 October, 2013 at 9:00 pm

        Yes. I am Canadian. One thing I remember is the large number of maple leaf flags Canadian vets place on the wall.

  3. javivizc
    17 October, 2013 at 5:51 am

    You not been written about the humanitarian mission of the Spanish Army (1965-1970) in Go Cong, near of Saigon.

  4. Angel
    17 October, 2013 at 6:04 am

    Despite it was a very small contribution, I think that the article should include Spain as an ally of the South. Following a requirement from US Secretary of State, Mr. Dean Rusk, General´s Franco government decided to send a medical team of 30 military doctors and male nurses. In Spain, at that time, this contribution was not widespread and actually almost anybody knew about it. The team ran a small military hospital of 150 beds in Go Cong, 45 Km south of Saigon. The first team was sent for one year and was followed by another two teams for 6 months each, so the Spain´s medical presence started in 1966 and lasted till 1968.

  5. barry
    4 May, 2015 at 9:56 am

    so nixon bombed the soviet supply line in order to pressure the north into agreeing to stop attacking the south , which finally brought about observation of the paris treaty, but after america withdrew support and he was impeached, the north violated it’s agreements and renewed it’s soviet supported assaults against the south, depleting the arvn’s ammunition.
    bending to leftard “useful fools” protesters,congress refused to even send any material aid to the south,sealing the south’s fate and consigning vietnam-and cambodia and laos to decades of stalinist like tyranny.
    funny how the press talks little of the +2 million vietnamese who were prevented by ho chi min from joining the first million north vietname from defecting to the south in the decade before JFK sent us forces , nor the half million civilians murdered by the communist land reform pogrom during that era.

  6. 27 July, 2015 at 10:10 am

    . . . . and we still have those who are proud of their anti-war stance in the late 1960s/early 1970s and have nothing to pleasant to say with regard to the soldiers who fought there regardless from where they came. Families and friends are still split on the issue. Those that lost a father, son, brother or friend there still grieve and are hurt . . . . . There are those who should be deeply ashamed by how they treated our soldiers, but they only brag . . . .

  7. 29 September, 2016 at 2:22 pm

    Sadly, the American did not include us, Khmer Republic (Cambodia)
    as one of the countries who also was there side by side with the American soldiers
    during Vietnam conflicts. 41 years after U.S left us to die in the hand of the Khmer Rouge, the American Congress still do not acknowledge our contributions to that war.

  8. wayne choi
    31 October, 2017 at 8:11 pm

    damn, what da hell dude. you must be white!!! like the early Indians once said, ‘never trust white men’ so this is what koreans get for fighting along side of US soldiers during the vietnam war? atrocities against Vietnamese civilians? whats dat? so koreans did nothing but rape and murder civilians during the war? you call yourself a historian?

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