Lest We Forget — How Different Countries Remember Their War Dead

A Canadian soldier tends to a monument to his fallen comrades during the First World War.

EVERY NOV. 11 at exactly 11 a.m., life throughout much of the British Commonwealth comes to a halt as citizens observe two minutes of silence to commemorate those who died in wartime.

Known as Remembrance Day, Poppy Day or Remembrance Sunday, the date marks the anniversary of the end of the First World War. In keeping with tradition, at precisely one hour before noon local time, observers will pause for two minutes of silence that symbolizes the moment the guns finally fell silent on the Western Front on Nov. 11, 1918.

Remembrance Day is observed in Great Britain, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, India and South Africa. It’s also marked in Kenya, Mauritius, Bermuda, and Barbados – all countries that fought for the British Empire in the so called War to End All Wars.

In honour of Nov. 11, MHN thought it would be fitting to examine how different countries commemorate their war dead, whether today or any other day of the year. While the overwhelming majority of visitors to this blog are from the U.K., Canada and the United States, we do get a number of readers from various other places around the world. If we’ve missed your country (or worse, got one of the details wrong), feel free to add your input below.

U.S. troops mark the end of World War One. (Image source: WikiCommons)

The United States

Just like the British Commonwealth, America also marks Nov. 11 as a day of commemoration. Originally known in the U.S. as Armistice Day, the occasion has since been re-named Veterans Day. Yet unlike the Commonwealth’s Remembrance Day, Veterans Day honours all those who served in America’s wars, not just the dead. The United States also observes Memorial Day, which is held each year on the last Monday of May. The holiday was first conceived as a way to heal the lingering divisions of the American Civil War. It served as a salute the more than 750,000 soldiers from both the Union and the Confederacy who died during the bloody four-year conflict. Originally, known as Decoration Day, the holiday was widened in the 20th Century to commemorate the dead in all American wars, as well as to celebrate the sacrifices of everyone who has served. Although a solemn holiday in the United States, Memorial Day is also considered the first long weekend of the summer season.

(Image source: WikiCommons)

France and Belgium

The French and Belgians also mark the end of the First World War, which is known in in France as the Great Patriotic War. Nov. 11 affords the opportunity to commemorate the fallen in those countries as well.

Polish troops shortly after their country’s independence. (Image source: WikiCommons)


Poles consider Nov. 11 a day of joyous celebration rather than one of sober reflection. The end of the First World War marks the beginning of Polish statehood. Accordingly, the 11th is known as Independence Day.

German soldiers in Berlin. (Image source: WikiCommons)


Germany doesn’t commemorate the end of the First World War, but it does have a day to remember victims of conflict. Volkstrauertag or Memorial Day was established shortly after World War One to remember the more than 2 million German soldiers who died fighting. The special day took place each year on the second Sunday of Lent (which comes either in February or March). When the Nazis assumed power in 1933, they recast the day as Heldengedenktag or the Day of Heroes. Following the Second World War, Germany abandoned observing the occasion altogether after citizens associated it with the Third Reich. However in 1952, Volkstrauertag was revived, but moved to the last Sunday before Advent in mid-November. It has been observed ever since.[1] A second memorial day is observed in Germany on Jan. 27. It honours those killed during the Holocaust. Known as the Day of Memory for the Victims of National Socialism, it’s also marked internationally, albeit under under various names. The German state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern also celebrates The Day of Liberation from National Socialism on VE Day or May 8.

(Image source: WikiCommons)


Russia also has a day marking the defeat of Nazism — May 9. It’s celebrated a day later than the official VE Day. Because of the difference in time zones between Germany and the Soviet Union, it was after midnight in Moscow when the surrender went into effect on May 8, 1945. Known as Victory Day, the holiday celebrates the triumph of Soviet arms while also paying tribute to the U.S.S.R.’s 23 million victims of the war, both military and civilian. The occasion is also marked in the former republics of Yugoslavia as well as Israel. Ironically, the day became something of a non-event in the years following he break up of the Soviet Union as it was often associated with communist rule. However the annual event was appropriated by Russian president Vladimir Putin in recent years and transformed into a nationalist celebration. It also continues to be recognized in the former Soviet republics. Beginning in 2007, Royal Navy veterans of the Arctic convoys began marking Victory Day as well. Currently, Russian diplomats, veterans and even members of the Royal Family observe the occasion aboard HSM Belfast on the River Thames.

(Image source: WikiCommons)


Japan is just one of the many nations that commemorate the end of Pacific War. Known as The Day for Mourning the War Dead and Praying for Peace, it’s observed on Aug. 15 – the day Japan surrendered to the Allies. The end of the war is also observed in China, Hong Kong, Korea and Vietnam. Interestingly enough, VJ Day isn’t a national holiday in the U.S., but is an official state holiday in Rhode Island always falling on the second Monday in August. Australia marks Aug. 15 each year with a contest for amateur radio operators. During the 24 hour competition,  contestants race to make as many ham radio contacts as possible. A trophy goes to the state with the highest number of participants. [2]

An ANZAC bugler plays the Last Post. (Image source: Australian War Memorial)

Australia and New Zealand

While Australia and New Zealand commemorate Nov. 11 like other Commonwealth member states, those two countries also honour the beginning of the disastrous 1915 Dardanelles Campaign every April 25. Known as ANZAC Day, this national day of remembrance has been expanded to include not just those who fought and died at Gallipoli, but all Australians and New Zealanders who made sacrifices in both countries’ wars in general. (And special thanks to G.David Thomas for enlightening us.)


(Image source: WikiCommons)

More Memorable Facts

Moments of Silence… or not

Many commemorative days feature moments of silence in which citizens quietly reflect on the loss of life. The Israelis commemorate the Holocaust not with quiet, but by blasting air raid sirens across the entire country. One morning each spring at precisely 10 a.m., life in Israel stops as the klaxons wail.  This video shows Israeli motorists pull to the side of a highway and exit their vehicles at the designated hour to listen. Although it usually occurs in April, the exact day moves each year due to Passover celebrations. Similarly, the city of Warsaw marks the occasion of the 1944 ghetto uprising with sirens on Aug. 1 each year.

Red Flowers, White Ones and Blue

Throughout the British Empire, Remembrance Day is marked by the wearing of a red poppy. These small artificial flowers, which are pinned to the lapel, symbolize the poppies that grew in Flanders fields during the First World War. As far back as the 1920s, British peace activists and pacifists have promoted the wearing of white poppies instead of red ones to speak out against war in general. Many in the U.K. and elsewhere considered the variation disrespectful. Interestingly, the British Royal Legion considers both white and red poppies appropriate for Remembrance Day. Although they also mark Nov. 11, the French don’t wear red poppies. Instead blue cornflowers are worn for Nov. 11.

Last Post and Taps

As we reported previously on this very blog, the bugle call known as Taps wasn’t always played for the dead. It was originally written during the American Civil War as call to soldiers in Union camps to turn in for the night. It eventually was commandeered for use at military funerals. Similarly, the British army had come up with its own ceremonial tune for similar occasions. The song that is now used throughout the Commonwealth at Remembrance Day ceremonies and military funerals, The Last Post, also began as a bugle call marking the end of a day. Click here to hear The Last Post performed. To read about Taps, The Last Post and other songs associated with war dead, read the earlier story here.

9 comments for “Lest We Forget — How Different Countries Remember Their War Dead

  1. 9 November, 2012 at 5:48 am

    Here in Germany the 11th of Novmeber marks (quiet inappropriately) the beginning of the carnival season. From that day on the preparations for carnival (which actually takes place from the weekend before ash wednesday till ash wednesday). Today most Germans do not even make the accosition with the armistice anymore. Here it is a non-public holiday.

    I can still remember back in 2007 when I was doing my term with the district prosecution service I was in the office when my supervisory prosecutor (who was actually born in 1942) was signing some documents and asked me for the date. I told him that it was the 11th of November. He remarked that he had almost forgotten the holiday. Not being a carnival person I commented that it was Armistice Day which earned me a quizzing look and the question what I meant by this.

    Lest we few forget the sacrifces made by soldiers on all sides throughout the ages… Apearantly many already have!

  2. elizzar
    11 November, 2012 at 12:32 pm

    one tiny niggle with this article – in the UK it is the Sunday closest to the 11th November that we call Remembrance Sunday, and most towns and cities will have parades and/or services at the local Cenotaph. the silence will be held at 1100, last post played, flags dipped etc. it isn’t a holiday in the sense of a day off work or anything (it being a Sunday). some will also then have a silence on the 11th as well, if it isn’t a Sunday itself. cheers and respects to all.

    • 11 November, 2012 at 3:23 pm

      Thanks for that. In Canada, we always do Remembrance Day on Nov. 11. It used to be a statutory holiday here but it stopped being a day off in 1984. Now all schools and workplaces and schools cease at 11 am for two minutes of silence and followed by the Last Post.
      Thanks for your input and for clarifying the story. I appreciate it.

    • 3 February, 2017 at 4:11 pm

      In Canada, Remembrance Day is always on November 11, can be on any day of the week. It is not a holiday either but some people want it to be. All liquor and beer stores are closed until noon as well. I’m not sure if schools have the day off as they never did when I went to school or college. We also wear a red poppy over here as well. At one time, all factories used to shut off their machinery but with computers and robots they don’t do that anymore. Factories without robots or computers turn off all machinery at some places. When I went to school in the 1960s to mid 1970s we stood and bowed our head to observe the two minute silence.

  3. G.David Thomas
    3 April, 2014 at 7:20 am

    Few nations have held the memory of their fallen Son’s as dear as Australia. It is part of deep national pride and is commemorated every April 25th as ANZAC day. Any visitor to anywhere in the country will be treated to a daylong celebration, starting before daybreak with a dawn service. Later the mid-morning Anzac day parade for surviving veterans of all Australia’s conflicts takes place with the largest in Sydney televised nationally and finally the gathering of former servicemen & women at the many ex-services clubs scattered throughout the nation where celebrations last to late into the night. From the smallest hamlets to the largest cities, gatherings around small monuments detailing the names of the fallen act as the focus for national remembrance. Anzac day itself commemorates Australia’s participation in the Dardanelles campaign of WW1, a time many consider to be a baptism of fire as a new nation and the beginning of her involvement as part of the Commonwealth’s contribution to Britain’s WWI war effort.
    Now, it is a day or reverence and community celebration, where thanks is given to our service men and women, past and present, who have sacrificed their lives during armed conflict.
    Australia also commemorates the 11th hour or the 11th day, the 11th month for the 2 min of silence, but unlike Anzac day, there is no national holiday, and most probably don’t relate to Armistice day to any degree as it is only really observed by schools, government services & institutions, clubs and the military with a small service. It fails to capture the public attention the way Anzac day does, and with the 100th anniversary of the armistice only a few short years away, I’d be surprised if its commemoration continues much past that.
    Lastly, as lovely as the article is, I have to say the August 15 ham radio thing is, well way off the mark. No one has heard of it here, I had to Google it to check it wasn’t a joke.

    • admin
      3 April, 2014 at 11:54 am

      Hello: Thanks for mentioning ANZAC Day. I’ve added a bit on it above.
      As for the Ham Radio for VJ Day, I had to triangulate that a bit on the web myself. I merely added it out of the sheer oddness of it. Including that and NOT mentioning April 25 was an oversight bordering on heartless though. Thanks again!

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